Azerbaijan has already stepped into the post-natural resources era, and this requires a substantial rethinking, revision and assessments of the country’s economy’s present and future directions, particularly, in the following sub-areas: non-oil sector economic development; economic regulation and governance; regional development; sustainable development; trade; international economic relations; natural resources management; economic competitiveness; population growth; labor policy and welfare affairs; inflation; manufacturing and services; energy, transportation and environment; macroeconomic analysis and forecasting; industrialization challenges; private property; education, unemployment, poverty and crime.