AZERBAIJAN, AS A HUB IN THE EURASIAN TRANSPORT CORRIDORS

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Rovshan Ibrahimov

Hankuk University of Foreign Languages

      Introduction

Azerbaijan is located in the South Caucasus, which is unique in its characteristics and important in geopolitical location. As for Azerbaijan, its territory can be the only in the Eurasian region, which could be an alternative to Russia and Iran as the transport route between such important economic regions as the European Union and the Far Eastern states. If to draw a vertical line from the Barents Sea in the north to the Persian Gulf coast in the south, this line will cross the widen spaces of the European part of Russia, a small strip of Azerbaijan territory and then Iran. This means that Azerbaijan is the only land-based alternative to Russia and Iran for the transport of goods and passengers between West and East

Azerbaijan can also play a significant role as an additional transport corridor to the existing through the Suez Canal maritime route. In addition, Azerbaijan a connecting link between Russia and Iran, this formed another transport corridor: North-South.

Azerbaijan is well aware of the importance of this factor and feature of its geographical position. That is why this country is trying to actively develop transport infrastructure both domestically and in the region as a whole. It is known that at the initial stage of its independence, Azerbaijan has focused on the creation of a number of transport corridors for the export and transit of oil and gas to world markets. Pipelines were built, such as the Baku-Supsa pipeline and the main pipeline Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline. In addition, the project was implemented Baku-Tbilisi-Erzurum gas pipeline. This process continues today: the construction began with the active participation of Azerbaijan Trans Adriatic Pipeline (TANAP) in Turkey, and its continuation of Turkey’s border with Greece via Albania to Italy, Trans Adriatic Pipeline (TAP).

However, the formation of transportation hub with Azerbaijan is not limited to the energy sector. Much attention is paid to the development of all parts of the transport network in order to turn Azerbaijan into an important transport hub in the Eurasian region. In addition, Azerbaijan is considering the transport sector as one of the alternative to energy, economic segments. This study will assess the formation of transport infrastructure is part of Azerbaijan’s energy sector and its strategic importance

Formation of the alternative railroad corridor

Nowadays, one of the key tasks of Azerbaijan is the modernization of the existing transport routes and logistics centers. It is worth noting that in the South Caucasus region railways functioned the beginning since the end of the the end of the XIX century. Railway connects all main cities in the South Caucasus and the rest Russia. Its plays the key role in transportation of freights and passengers. Another important development held later, in 1926, for the first time in the Soviet Union, on the Absheron Peninsula, where Baku is located, part of the railway was electrified.

During the period of the Soviet Union the importance of the railway line has grown even more, and has play a strategic role for the economic activities of the South Caucasus republics. Due to the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, Armenia has occupied 20% of Azerbaijani territory, all transport links between Azerbaijan and Azerbaijan till the liberation of the occupied territories has suspended. After independence of the South Caucasus states, this situation remains the same. So for the moment this article describes transport corridors that pass through the territory of Azerbaijan and Georgia.

In short, throughout the South Caucasus region Baku-Tbilisi-Batumi / Poti railway passes which plays a role of transshipment between the Azerbaijani ports: international port Alyat, Sangachal and Dubendi terminals on the Caspian Sea and Georgian ports (such as Kulevi, Batumi and Poti) on the Black Sea. Azerbaijan`s ports are the South Caucasus sea gate in the Eastern direction, while Georgian-in Western. They play role of connection between Central Asian (via Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan) and Black Sea regions.

At the moment there is full renewal of railways in Azerbaijan, as well as modernization of central administration system, renovation of locomotives and wagons and increase of average movement speed of the trains up to the 140 km / hour.[1] In the future it is expected that the speed of the trains will further increase. For comparison, currently the average speed of the trains in Azerbaijan is only 30 km/h. At the same time Georgia is also conduct modernization of its railways. The average speed of the trains between Tbilisi and Poti consists only 25-30 km/h. With the reconstruction of some segments of this railroad duration of the will sufficiently decrease.[2]

Increasing the speed of the passage of trains is paramount, because in today’s freight segment, along with security and speed of delivery is very important. Therefore, the average train speed of 30 km / h is totally unacceptable. A curious fact that is quite a place in order to compare of the trains speed on the Southern Caucasus today and more than century ago. World-renowned French writer Jules Verne, in his story “Claudius Bombarnac”, written by him in 1893, the writer tells the story of the journey of the hero from Europe to China. To this end, the hero of the story, as traveling by train from Tbilisi to Baku and for this trip it took thirteen hours.[3] Now let us make a comparison. According to the schedule of trains, duration of travel from Tbilisi to Baku is 16 hours and 40 minutes (!).[4]That is, 120 years later, the path of the train for three hours passes slowly. Of course, it is necessary to take into account the fact that Azerbaijan and Georgia, in contrast to the time when they were part of the Russian Empire, are now independent states, and the train is also idle for several hours at the border. However, the fact remains.

An important step to solve the problem with the increase in the rate of transport can play the project of Baku-Tbilisi-Ahalkalaki-Kars railroad construction which started on November 21, 2007. This project is designed to connect the European railway across the South Caucasus and Central Asia with the Far Eastern states. After the completion of construction of “Marmaray” on 29 October 2013, tunnel under the Bosporus strait in Istanbul, the new corridor unites European and the Far Eastern states with the alternative railroad route. Thus, after the implementation of the project it will be able by the railway transport to reach from Beijing to London.

The main initiator of Baku-Tbilisi-Ahalkalaki-Kars railroad is Azerbaijan. With this purpose Azerbaijan provide financial support to its neighbor Georgia. Initially, for the implementation of this project Azerbaijan loaned to the Georgian side with $ 200 million for 25 years with the 1% per annum. Then Azerbaijan has allocated an additional loan of $ 575 million at the rate of 5% per annum.[5] Initially, it is expected that this road will be carried up to 6.5 million tons of cargo, and up to one million passengers. According to forecasts, after the third year of operation, the volume of cargo will be 3 million tons, after the fifth year – 5 million tonnes and more, and after 10 years of operation, the volume of freight traffic will exceed 10 million tons. Peak capacity of the corridor will be 17 million tons of cargo a year.[6]

Besides to the coastal countries another state in the Central Asian region which is also interested in development of railroad and ferry transportation in Western direction is Uzbekistan. This state wants to join to the Baku-Tbilisi-Ahalkalaki-Kars transport project and with this purpose expresses intention to implement Navoi (Uzbekistan)-Turkmenbashi (Turkmenistan port on the Caspian Sea) railway route which can be connected via Caspian Sea with the South Caucasus railway network. Thereby, Uzbekistan will facilitate and diversify export of cotton and other agricultural product to the world markets. The use of Baku-Tbilisi-Ahalkalaki-Kars railway can also be beneficial in the reverse direction for the transport of goods from Europe. Containers with goods for the Central Asian states and Afghanistan can be transported in this direction.[7]As a result this direction can be implemented as soon as construction of Baku-Tbilisi-Ahalkalaki-Kars will be completed.

Formation and reconstruction of seaports

Along with the reconstruction of the railroad, also develop and open ports on the Caspian Sea. One of the abovementioned ports- Sangachal is the world`s largest integrated oil and gas processing terminal which located 55 km south of Baku on the Caspian coast and receives, processes, stores and exports crude oil and gas. Caspian oil (not only Azerbaijani, but also Kazakhstani and Turkmen oil which transported with tankers) pumps from Sangachal to Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan and gas from Shah Deniz to the Baku-Tbilisi-Erzurum pipelines. There are different facilities in terminal including 3 crude oil storage tanks with 880,000 barrels capacity each.[8]

Another port- the Dubendi terminal has multiple berth port with large storage comprising of multiple tank farms and two railways. Terminal designed to handle and then to export crude oil through Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline or in Georgian terminals via railway.[9]

As for the port in Alat, its construction was made by a presidential decree of 18 March 2007. The new port, which is located 65 km south of Baku, is to replace the old one at the center of the capital. This new port will provide services as general cargo as well as passenger terminals, will obtain cargo handling and Ro/Ro facilities, rail ferry terminal connecting the ports of Aktau (main Kazakhstani port on the Caspian Sea) and Turkmenbashi as well as International Logistics Centre.[10] New Azerbaijani port in Alat on the Caspian Sea can receives both oil and non-oil freights, from Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan ports, revise and follow then in the Western direction. Already in November 2010, Azerbaijan started construction of the international trade seaport in Alat.

The first stage of the new Baku International Sea Trade Port in Alat is already completed. It is expected that at the first phase the overall capacity of the port consists 10 million tons of cargo and 50,000 containers per year. After the introduction of the second phase, the capacity of freight pass port reaches 17 million tons of cargo and 150,000 containers, and at the end of the third stage – 25 million tons of cargo and 1 million containers.[11] After the construction port will be able to receive such vessels as ferry boats, Ro-Ro ships, and universal dry cargo ships.[12]

Nowadays cargo of the non-oil freights from Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan to Azerbaijan is increased. It became possible because of improvement of coordination among the transport agencies of three coastal states Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. Now these partner states concentrate on development of new and more appropriate tariff policy, including discounts and preferential rates in transportation sector. Infrastructure development and logistical coordination make it possible further increasing of maritime freight transportation in West-East.

Already, between Alat port and the Turkmenbashi and Aktau ports ships under the Azerbaijani flag engaged in the transportation. Freights and passengers are transported with seven ferries of the “Dagestan” type (capacity – 28 cars), four ferries of “Academician Zarifa Aliyeva” type (capacity – 52 cars), the two – “Bard” type (capacity – 54 cars) and 2 courts Ro-Ro type as”Compos er Qara Qarayev”.[13]

 

Development activities and their effectiveness

A very significant event occurred in January 2015. The new Baku sea international commercial port for the first time took the Turkmen ferry “Berkarar” type «Ro-Pax». In the case of the regular activities of ferry transportation to the Baku-Turkmenbashi, it will increase the possibility of cargo transportation in this direction, as well as allow for a shorter time to send and receive; arriving from Turkey trucks and transports them to Central Asia in the amount of an average of 50 thousand in year. At the same time transportation of Turkish trucks plays a very important role.[14] Traditionally, Turkish carriers to connect to the Central Asian countries used the road on Iranian territory. However, they are regularly confronted with artificial problems at border crossings Iran, which wants to thus create more favorable conditions for Iranian carriers. In this case, Turkey formed a new alternative way of transport. It should be noted that this route is very actively used in the Soviet Union: a regular train-car ferry service between the port of Baku to the port of Turkmenbashi (Krasnovodsk at that time), was first opened in1963 year.[15]

Another important event occurred on August 3, 2015, when the port in Alat took the ferry to the “Nomad express” container train. Container train made the journey over 3,500 kilometers from the Chinese city Shihrezi through the city, Dostyk in Kazakhstan to the port of Aktau and further to Alat. From Alat train reached the destination- Keshla station, located near Baku. Total freight container transportation via this corridor took only five days.[16] There were delivered 82 containers. By using this corridor, it was to provide more speedy delivery of such cargos. Usually, the transport of containers from China to Europe occupy from 25 to 40 days. In this case, there is a great opportunity to increase cargo traffic along the route. In addition, Azerbaijan’s interests are identical with the interests of the partner countries: China and Kazakhstan. The fact that China is now actively supports the development of transport infrastructure in Eurasia within the initiative “One Belt, One Road”. At the same time, Kazakhstan is also developing the transport infrastructure in its territory within the framework of the New Economic Policy “Nurly Jol”. In turn, in 2013, Azerbaijan has developed a new concept of “Azerbaijan 2020: Look into the Future”,[17] according to which the formation of the transport infrastructure and transit of goods and passengers across the country, as an alternative to the oil sectors of the economy. It is expected that in the case of the effective use of this corridor, the number of transported containers in 2020 may reach 300-400 thousand pieces, which in turn will allow Azerbaijan to earn hundreds of millions of manats.[18]

In order to attract cargo flows on the territory of Azerbaijan, it is important to reduce the time of transport through the territory of this country. One important task in this regard is the synchronization of the different modes of transport. To this end, in late October 2015 in Azerbaijan, it was a coordinating council, which will form a common policy on transit cargo. The Council will facilitate the accelerated implementation of the uniform and transparent tariff policy in the field of transit of goods through the railways, maritime transport, ports and marine terminals in Azerbaijan. Will simplify border crossing and transportation process and ensure coordination between government agencies of the region.[19] Creating such a board is important. Since the appeal of Azerbaijan as an alternative transport route is that goods transportation through its territory will take much less time. In this case, if there is no stable relationship been established between the different modes of transport and rapid transition at the boundaries,  then Azerbaijan can only lose in the competition.

Also, improved and modernized the entire train, locomotives and wagons. For these purposes, in 2014, in the Ganja city construction of carriage factory by the well-known Swiss company “Stadler” has began. Azerbaijan will be able to provide own needs at the expense of the production of this plant. In perspective the products of this factory will also sell to such states as, Turkey, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Iran.[20] Before taking up production at the plant to meet the needs, in the summer of 2014the “Azerbaijan Railways” state company and “Stadler”, signed a contract for the sale of 30 new passenger rail cars. The first batch of 10 cars will be commissioned in July-August 2016. An important feature of the new cars is that they are adapted to automatically move the pair of wheels for movement on the European railway track. The fact that the width of a railway track in the post Soviet region is 1520 mm, whereas in the world the most common width is 1435 mm. Jump from one track to another, will increase the speed of traffic, as well as the speedy integration of the railway between Azerbaijan and the world. Since, as in Iran and Turkey railway track width is 1,435 mm.

As it seen, existing South Caucasian Azerbaijan-Georgia railway transshipment corridor makes possible to transport dry cargo, oil and oil products in both direction. Ports on the Black and Caspian Seas are modernized as well as national railway network of Azerbaijani and Georgian segments. This transport corridor is successfully used not only by the states of the South Caucasus but also by the states of the Black Sea and the Central Asian regions. Moreover, the South Caucasus region provides a serious alternative as transit hub not only between the Black Sea and the Central Asian regions but through them between the EU and Far Eastern states. This is very important because the trade relations between these two regions are increasing every year. Thus, only with China, which is the main exporter to the EU’s markets and fastest growing export market for the EU states, trade level achieved well over €1 billion a day.[21]It should be mentioned that 90 % of total cargo transportation between these regions conducted by ships via Suez Canal.[22]In this regards, the importance of the new transit routes between the two biggest economic regions in the world increased dramatically.

Georgia, Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan are already cooperating in transportation of grain produced in Kazakhstan and exported to the world markets from Georgian ports. This direction is very attractive for Kazakhstan because this state have no direct access to the Black Sea and should ship own grain through Russian territory. In addition to the long distance Kazakhstan has to pay US $ 40 extra in transit fees for every ton. Transport fees are also another obstacle for Kazakhstan in competition with other grain producers for the markets of the Black Sea region states. This state pays approximately US $100 per ton as transport fee for the transportation of its grain to ports on the Black and Baltic seas and the Sea of Azov.[23]

That is why Kazakhstan is very interested in the development of a new export route which would make it possible to decrease transportation and other fees. In this case, the export of the grain and other freights may increase and bring more dividends for Kazakhstani economy. Alternative route for Kazakhstan may lay in Western direction through Caspian Sea and then the Caucasus region. In addition, a few years ago Baku was built joint grain terminal, which is a kind of link in the export route. The fact that, another grain terminal is located in the Kazakh port on the Caspian Sea, Aktau, from where the grain transported from Kazakhstan to Baku for its further transportation.[24]

Azerbaijan has already declared that she is ready to create necessary conditions for the smooth release of Kazakh goods including oil, oil products, grain and other products, to the Western markets through its territory.[25] Moreover, this state is interested to create a logistics center in the western regions of Kazakhstan.[26] For example, in 2014 in the coastal Caspian Sea Mangyshlak region of Kazakhstan, in Aktau port, the construction of production and logistics center of the Azerbaijani company “Azersun” has initiated. This center will promote the development of trade between the two countries in the oil sector, as well as an increase in transit and export opportunities. “Azersun” specializes in the production of agricultural industrial production. It is important for the Kazakh market and agricultural products produced in Azerbaijan. Kazakhstan is really interested in the supply of fresh vegetables and fruits, as well as industrially processed agricultural products made in Azerbaijan.[27]

North-South corridor

There is another transport corridor, which Azerbaijan can occupy a significant place. This applies to the country’s cooperation with Russia and Iran, in freight traffic on the Eurasian space, which also has a very broad perspective. This country is a link of other regional corridor “North-South”, which was agreed between Russia, Iran and India in 2000. The parties decided to create a new transport route for the transportation of goods between Europe and the Far East. The new transport route offers competitive alternative to the sea route via the Suez Canal, slashing costs and shipment times between Russia/Northern Europe and the Persian Gulf/ Indian Ocean / South Asia / South-East Asia. It is expected that the price of container transport may be cheaper in the order up to the 30 per cent.

Given this fact, Azerbaijan can also become an active participant in the transportation traffic on this route, because this country locates between two links of the corridor: Russia and Iran. Especially Azerbaijan is interested in participation in transportation via railway. One of the corridors in the framework of this initiative is the western branch of the Corridor between Astrakhan-Makhachkala-Samur, and then via Azerbaijan, with further access to Iran via the border station of Astara.[28]

The railway transportation has been operating between Russia and Azerbaijan since the Soviet times. As for the connection of railways of Azerbaijan and Iran, for this purpose from the Azerbaijani side needs to build only 8,4 kilometers of railroad tracks to the border.[29] As for Iran, there should be held a large-scale work, namely the construction of the railway Qazvin-Rasht-Astara, a length of 375 km. It is also needed to build a bridge Astara (Azerbaijan) – Astara (Iran) over the River Araz, the length of 7 km.

For a long time this project has not been implemented. However, in September 2015, Iran stated desire to early completion of the Qazvin-Rasht-Astara railway. On May 3, 2015 Russia, Iran and Azerbaijan signed an agreement on construction of this railway. At the same time, Iran has actually completed the construction of the railway line between the cities of Qazvin and Rasht, a length of 205 km.

In parallel with the preparation for the construction of the railway to ensure the efficient operation of the road, the heads of the customs services of Azerbaijan, Russia, Iran and India discussed the coordination of customs regulations between these states. It is expected that such a meeting will take place in the future.

The implementation of this transport corridor will only strengthen Azerbaijan status as a transit country. It is expected that at the initial stage, from this corridor about 6 million tons of freights per year and up to 15-20 million tons in the future will be transported.[30]

Airport terminals in Azerbaijan

In addition to the development of maritime ports and terminals, as well as railways Azerbaijan pays great attention to the improvement of airports. There are several international airports in Azerbaijan, the central of which named after Heydar Aliyev that locates in Baku. Baku is the largest air hub in the South Caucasus region. This airport operates flights to 58 destinations across Asia, the CIS, Europe and the USA, received and dispatched 31,000 flights per year. In 2011, a new airport terminal construction has started and already completed. The official opening of the new airport was held April 23, 2014.

The new airport enable to serve 6 million passengers and process thousands tons of cargo per year.[31] The largest in the region Cargo Terminal is in Baku, at the territory of airport. The total square of storages area is 20,000 square meters. Terminal has system of automated distribution and storage of palletized cargo, cold storage chambers, chambers for valuable cargo, and conditions for keeping dangerous goods. The total capacity of terminal is about 800 tons per day.

In addition to the airport in Baku, six airports in Azerbaijan have been reconstructed and received international status in the last 10 years. One of them is Nakhchivan international airport which reconstructed in 2004, plays a very crucial role. Due to the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict Armenia blockaded all routes and this autonomous region lost land connection with other part of Azerbaijan and Nakhchivan airport provides a permanent air link. Another modernized airports located in Ganja (reconstructed in 2006), which is the second biggest city in Azerbaijan, Zagatala (2008), city in the north-western part of Azerbaijan, Lankaran (2008) in the south-east, Gabala (2011) in the north-west and Zabrat airport near the Baku, specialized on helicopters flights. As it can be seen, the network of international airports covers virtually the entire territory of Azerbaijan, which is not currently occupied.[32]

Modernization of the main airports in Azerbaijan is only strengthen the region’s role as a transportation hub. It is very beneficial for transplants and landing during the long flights between European and Asian cities, the aircrafts will manage to receive all necessary services for the continuation of their flights.

Formation and construction of transport corridors through the region is promoted by the South Caucasus states as well as by the other interested sides. One of the major actors which interested in diversification of its connections with the Asian states is the EU.

Meanwhile freight shipment to Afghanistan via the South Caucasus region for the needs of coalition forces in NATO is already provided. Last several years the South Caucasus region has been considered as the main alternative to Pakistan route in order to supply the necessary equipments for NATO peacekeeping forces in this country and their subsequent withdrawal from Afghanistan. With this purpose, U.S. and their allies have opened the Northern Distribution Network (NDN), a new transport route connecting Baltic and Caspian ports with Afghanistan via Russia and the South Caucasus. It’s expected that about 120,000 containers of military equipments will need to be moved out of Afghanistan along with departing troops.[33]

Baku International Airport has played a key place as one of the principal land routes and logistics center in NDN, which completely by-passes Russia. The use of Azerbaijan territory as supply route to Afghanistan is match with the country’s strategic position as a gateway to Central, Inner and South Asia.[34] Approximately 40 % of U.S. and coalitions non-military supplies bound for Afghanistan, provided by Azerbaijan via air and naval transit.

Trans-National Eurasian Information Superhighway (TASIM)

Another important planned regional project which is initiated by Azerbaijan is TASIM. This is Trans-Eurasian information project which is aiming a creation of transnational fiber-optic backbone between Frankfurt and Hong Kong two biggest exchange points in Europe and Asia that will benefit on Eurasian area.[35] The fiber-optic cable will stretch through such states as China, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey to Germany. A reserve North transit line will pass through the territory of Russia, Ukraine and Poland.[36] Azerbaijan already has experience in realization of such kind of projects. For example, Azerbaijan participated in the realization of the information highway Europe-Persia Express Gateway (EPEG) project, which ended late in 2012 in partnership with Russia, Iran and Oman.[37] This project has received international recognition as important for development of ICT and wider socioeconomic condition of the region. TASIM is a long-term initiative that will be implemented in several stages. The main reason of that the region states have different level of telecom sector development and market needs. In the first stage, major transit and transport infrastructure will be build, which will allow TASIM to become commercially viable.[38] After implementation of first stage of TASIM, at the second stage it will provide affordable connectivity to land-locked in the South Caucasus and the Central Asia.[39]

Important development for project is that Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan signed an agreement for construction of cable which will pass through Caspian seabed. This became another example for cooperation between Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan. Moreover, TASIM success is directly depended on this cooperation, because without realization of Caspian segment of cable all project implementation would be highly questionable.[40]Additionally, the TASIM Secretariat has established cooperation with the EU, Turkey, Russia, Ukraine, the United Nations, the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation and with the Special Program for the Economies of Central Asia.[41]

With the realization of TASIM project Azerbaijan will become one of the important information and communication hub between the Europe and Asia. As it seen active participation of Azerbaijan in regional and interregional projects allows to this state to diversify its economic opportunities.

Conclusion

Eurasian region after the collapse of the Eastern Bloc and the Soviet Union is witnessing the development of economic relations, both bilateral and multilateral level. Also, active citizens of different countries became actively involved for tourism travelling. This trend is increasing rapidly. In parallel with the growth rate of passenger turnover and there is a need to create new trade routes to connect trading partners located in different parts of Eurasia. The main slogan of the formation of transport corridors was the word: diversification. That diversification of transport routes allows producers and consumers to reduce the possible political and economic risks associated with the carriage of goods and passengers, reduce costs, to obtain a better service.

Growth in demand for new transport routes allows to these countries to play a role of bridge between these two regions and to participate in the transportation of goods and services between the largest economies of Eurasian region. In this context especially Azerbaijan possesses a very exceptional possibility. Unique geographical position and the availability of the necessary infrastructure are essential factors for the conversion of this state as a transport hub and respectively to have a possibility to play the role of a bridge between Europe and Asia, as well as the North and the South.

Development of regional infrastructure is one of such initiative, other regulations are conducting a legal regulation for transport facilitation and improving mode of tariffs and taxation. So, the work carried out is not limited to the creation of the transport infrastructure, but also on standardization with international legal and economic conditions. With the improvement of these conditions with the aim of creating a competitive transport corridor continues, what making the Azerbaijan is one of the logistics centers in the Central Eurasia. The active process of creation of the transport infrastructure in Azerbaijan coincides with the two processes, one of which has an inner dynamics, and second- an external developments. First of all, the development of the transport sector in the country is related to the search for alternative energy segment of the economy of Azerbaijan. Reduced oil production and drop her price on the world market, made this need even more essential. As a consequence, the choice of transportation sector as alternative to energy sector is related to the second factor, namely the growth of trade in Eurasia and, as mentioned above, the search for new transport corridors. Thus, Azerbaijan accounts for its structural transformation conjectural reality of the global economy. It is expected that the formation of the transport infrastructure in Azerbaijan and, with her support in the regional countries, will continue.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Rovshan Ibrahimov

Hankuk University of Foreign Languages

Twitter: @rovshanibrahim

e-mail: rovshanibrahimov@gmail.com

[1] Musa Panahov, Materials of  the Caspian Forum, 06.12.2012, Istanbul, p.91.

[2] Taleh Ziyadov, Strategic Assessment of Euro-Asian Trade and Transportation, , HASEN, Istanbul, December, 2012,  pp. 27-28.

[3] For More Information See: Jules Verne, Claudius Bombarnac.

[4] Обший График Поездов 02.10.2015, http://railway.ge/?action=page&p_id=480&lang=rus.

[5]Азербайджан выделяет Грузии новый льготный кредит на $575 млн, 01.07.2011, http://www.newsazerbaijan.az/economic/20110701/296142544.html.

[6] Эмиль Исмайлов, Заграница для Азербайджанцев Станет Еще Ближе, http://news.day.az/economy/710785.html.

[7]ЭнверМамедов, Проехаться с ветерком-Азербайджан Обретает Статус Узлового Центра Нового Железнодорожно-Паромного Маршрута SilkWind,RegionPlus, No 123, 01.12.2012, pp. 57-59.

[8]Sangachal Terminal, http://www.bp.com/sectiongenericarticle.do?categoryId=9006674&contentId=7015100

[9]Cross Caspian, http://www.crosscaspian.com/www/index.php?lang=2&p=15&PHPSESSID=010914f0080b314157c4790941b99f21

[10] About Alyat Port, http://www.bakuport.gov.az/index.php?lang=en&Itemid=496.

[11] Президент Ильхам Алиев Принял Участие в Открытии Паромного Терминала Нового Бакинского Международного Порта, 22.09.2014, http://www.trend.az/azerbaijan/politics/2314386.html.

[12]New seaport in Azerbaijan constuced on schedule, 15.02.2012, http://www.transcaspian.az/2012/?p=news__read&t=top&q=36&l=en

[13] Паромная Переправа Азербайджанского Государственного Каспийского Морского Пароходства, http://ferries.euaspr.com/#tab-kaspi-sea.

[14][14] Н.Аббасова, Новый Бакинский Морской Порт Принял Туркменский Паром «Беркарар», 15.01.2015, http://interfax.az/view/629433.

[15] Паромная Переправа Азербайджанского Государственного Каспийского Морского Пароходства, ibid.

[16] Баку Принял Первый Поезд по Транскаспийскому Транспортному Маршруту из Актау, 03.08.2015, http://www.inform.kz/rus/article/2803283

[17] Концепция Развития «Азербайджан – 2020: Взгляд в Будущее», http://www.president.az/files/future_ru.pdf.

[18]  Филипп Громыко, Азербайджан Расширяет «Окно» в Китай, 24.08.2015, http://kavpolit.com/articles/azerbajdzhan_rasshirjaet_okno_v_kitaj-19320/.

[19] В Азербайджане Будет Создан Координационный Совет по Транзитным Грузоперевозкам, 21.10.2015, http://www.1news.az/chronicle/20151021075908757.html

[20] Azerbaijani president attends foundation laying ceremony of Stadler Ganja Carriage Factory, 19.10.2014, http://en.trend.az/azerbaijan/politics/2323477.html.

[21]Trade with China, http://ec.europa.eu/trade/creating-opportunities/bilateral-relations/countries/china/

[22]Taleh Ziyadov, Azerbaijan as a regional hub in Central Eurasia, ADA, Baku, 2012, p. 12.

[23]Kazakhstan finally decided to build a grain terminal in the Georgian Black Sea port, 14.05.2010, http://www.blackseagrain.net/agonews/kazakhstan-finally-decided-to-build-a-grain-terminal-in-the-georgian-black-sea-port

[24] Kazakhstan starts construction of grain terminals at Iranian-Turkmen border, 06.08.2014, http://en.tengrinews.kz/industry_infrastructure/Kazakhstan-starts-construction-of-grain-terminals-at-Iranian-255209/.

[25] Азербайджан готов способствовать беспрепятственному выходу казахстанских товаров на западные рынки, 20.06.2013, http://www.1news.az/economy/20130620101916256.html

[26] Азербайджан может создать логистические центры в Казахстане, 19.06.2013, http://news.day.az/economy/409554.html

[27] Ровшан Ибрагимов, 04.06.2015, Внешняя Политика Азербайджана на Каспии: неизбежность Развития Отношений с Казахстаном,  ibid.

[28] North – South, Official Site of  Russian Railways, http://eng.rzd.ru/statice/public/en?STRUCTURE_ID=86.

[29] “North-South, Official Site of Azerbaijan Railways LTD, “http://railway.gov.az/index/en/2nd-column-3/north-south.

[30] Temkin Jafarov, Date of Qazvin-Rasht-Astara Railway Commissioning Announced in Iran, 11.09.2015, http://en.trend.az/business/economy/2432388.html.

[31] Президент Ильхам Алиев и его супруга Мехрибан Алиева приняли участие в церемонии открытия нового аэровокзального комплекса в Баку, 24.04.2014, http://news.day.az/politics/484892.html.

Читать полностью:  http://news.day.az/politics/484892.html

[32] In the Air and on the Ground, Azerbaijan Airlines Journal, No 3, May, 2013, pp. 54-58.

[33]Karimjan Akhmetov,  Evgeniya Usmanova, Afghanistan Withdrawal: The Pros and Cons of Using the Northern Distribution Network, 12.09.2012, http://www.eurasianet.org/node/65904

[34]The Northern Distribution Network and Afghanistan Geopolitical Challenges and Opportunities, ibid, p. 13.

[35] TransEurasian Information Super Highway (TASIM), http://www.itu.int/wsis/stocktaking/plugin/broadband/documents2BB.asp?lang=en&project=1318837144

[36] TASIM, http://www.mincom.gov.az/projects/tasim/

[37] Проект TASIM даст Азербайджану возможность стать ключевым хабом Прикаспийского региона, 29.03.2013, http://www.1news.az/economy/tech/20130329113244304.html

[38] Fikret Pashayev, TASIM, What is it, how is it, http://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/SPECA/documents/kdb/2011/International_Conference/Presentations/Tasim.pdf

[39] TransEurasian Information Super Highway (TASIM), http://www.itu.int/wsis/stocktaking/plugin/broadband/documents2BB.asp?lang=en&project=1318837144

[40] Trans-Eurasian Information Super Highway to be launched by mid-2013, 02.03.2012, http://www.ictnews.az/read-10342-news-2.html

[41] TASIM, http://www.mincom.gov.az/projects/tasim/